.. heel, papermaking, blocking printing, and specialized textile weaving. The caliph was the supreme religious and civil head of the Muslim world. He was primarily the military chief and a judge. The chief administrator was primarily the judge and his task was to see that the faithful lived according to the lad of the Koran.
The Koran helped preserve the family by encouraging the people to marry and for men to support their wives. The position of women depended on their social class and the period of society in which they lived in. 26. The Greek embraced the Islamic culture with their achievements that the Arabs wanted to preserve. Scholars translated many great Geek authors and were especially interested in astronomy, astrology, mathematics, medicine and optics.
27. There are abundant resources that exist for the study of womens lives during the medieval history. Few writings by women survive today since not a lot of women in the West were literate. Nuns left religious literature, plays, and histories. Some of womens poems written in Arabic survive and also Greek histories written by women.
Another source is the recording of the priests about the women. These sources are biased since men wrote them and because they were used for a number of motives. To interpret the overall information about the history of medieval women, a historian needs to know a great deal about the context which they were written. They might have been written to help accomplish a goal, like to strengthen families. Another source is the laws, which might not be useful since historians might not know if they were actually applied, but there are court cases that can be useful.
28. The halls and chambers of the Alhambra Palace surround a series of open courts, which include the Court of Lions containing arcades resting on 124 white marble columns. The interior of the building is decorated with examples of the so-called honeycomb and stalactite vaulting. Its walls and ceilings are decorated with geometric ornamentation of great detail and complexity, executed with skilled marble, alabaster, glazed tile, and carved plaster. At the center of the Court of Lions is a garden, which is divided into four parts, with a fountain marked with references to the warriors of the holy war.
Rooms and halls lead to the courts, either directly or through arcades. Muhammad V redesigned the Alhambra in the last half of the 14th century. A striking feature of the Court of Lions is the limitless delicacy of its forms. The architectural structures are arranged in a manner that creates sudden, ever-changing impressions. The design of the court seems perfectly symmetrical, but it is modified by axes of composition that do not agree to the features of the plan. 29.
The early circumstances that brought on the decline of medieval Islamic civilization was the growing weakness in the military of various Islamic states during invasions. The Christian armies were attacking on the West, the Byzantine offensive was in Jerusalem and Turkish nomads were attacking the East. The Islamic states were giving their warriors grants for land instead of money, which weakened the central authority. 30. ? 732- Charles Martel defeated the Arabs in a battle at Tours ? 744- Charlemagne conquers Kingdom of the Lombards ? 788- Charlemagne conquers Bavaria ? 800- Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as the emperor of Rome. ? 804- Charlemagne conquers Saxony ? 811- Charlemagne conquers Brittany ? 811- Charlemagne conquers Spanish March 31.
Charles the Great was a large man that liked physical exercise such as hunting, riding, bathing and swimming. He was passionate for woman and food and had an intellectual curiosity and alertness. He was probably illiterate, but he spoke and understood Latin, he understood Greek and enjoyed the company of intellectual men. 32. The Pope confirmed the Frankish monarchy/papacy alliance by crowning Charlemagne the emperor of the Romans on the Christmas night.
33. A rebellion would not have been staged against the cult of the emperor because the people were made to think that the emperor was a figure of holiness and brilliance and could not be rebelled against. In this way the emperor and the cult were protected from any rebellion. 34. The court chaplain oversaw the court chancery since its job was to advise the emperor and the entire court in matters of conscience, which include the official documents that were written in the chancery.
35. Emperor Head of the government Chaplain Head of the palace, advised the emperor and the entire court in matters of conscience Chancery Where the official documents were written Chief lay official Supervised the administration, judged cases the emperor did not handle, and acted as regent during the emperors absences Chamberlain Looked after the royal bedroom, and treasury Seneschal Kept the palace food and servants Constable Cared for the horses County The fundamental administrative unit Count Administrator, judge, and military leader of the county Vicarius Heard minor cases. 36. Charlemagne managed control over such a large empire by maintaining an effective supervision and control over the local officials. He traveled to check how the land was being administered and heard appeals from the decisions of the counts. He appointed traveling inspectors to inspect specific counties.
The last thing was to require that the important men of his realm to attend a general assembly every year. 37. Charlemagne standardized weights, measures and money throughout the empire. 38. The need for literacy jumpstarted the Carolingian Renaissance because in the sixth and seventh centuries different styles of writings developed and there were other changes that needed to become unified. Literate people in one part of Europe had a great difficulty reading a text written in another part of Europe.
There was also a widespread decline of education, which prevented some priests from performing their jobs completely. These were weakening the unity of the Church and the state. 39. The benefits derived form the Carolingian Renaissance were the unity of the Church, well-educated priests and unity of the empire. 40.
The benefit derived from the Carolingian Minuscule was the development of a new handwriting that included lower case letters. This made books easier to read and more letters could be put on a page, which made books less expensive. 41. The benefits derived from the invention of Medieval Latin were that the language enabled travelers, administrator and scholars to make themselves understood in all parts of Europe, which helped unit European unit. 42. The unique element of the illuminated manuscript that I saw on the web page was the use of lower case letters, which was developed during the Carolingian Minuscule.
43. The texts were standardized when Charlemagne told Alcuin of York to prepare a new edition of Jeromes Vulgate translation of the Bible. This edition became the common biblical text for the entire Western church. Charlemagne bought a copy of the Benedictine rule and had it copied and distributed to the monks. The schools were standardized when Charlemagne ordered all bishops and monasteries to establish schools to educate boys.
Alcuin helped devise the standards for the school curriculum into verbal arts or mathematical arts. This was standard in the twelfth century. 44. When Louis the Pious assumed the throne to the Carolingian Empire it was weakened by his indecisiveness, which led to a rebellion by his sons. When he died the Empire was divided by his sons.
45. The conclusion to be drawn from the map on page 231 is that the Vikings expanded in the East very quickly by using their ships. They conquered many cities in a short period of time conquering Paris, Constantinople and other major cities. 46. The paragraph about women on page 231 is gratuitous because the authors wrote different stories about women.
Even in the paragraph there are two different viewpoints. It first says that women were probably treated roughly and then in the next sentence it says that they were esteemed and played the role of advisor in politics. These are completely opposite leads that do not conclude to anything. 47. Viking- one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who plundered the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century. 48. Viking ships were a major factor in the immigration of the Vikings because they were able to travel up rivers and on high seas.
The ships were large enough to carry horses and provisions as well as men. The Vikings were skilled seamen that used their ships to an advantage when in war. 49. A chain mail is a flexible armor made of joined metal links or scales. 50. During the Middle Ages, Christianity did not rise that much in Scandinavia.
Some Vikings converted to be able to trade in Western Europe and there were conversions in Sweden and Denmark but most of these conversions were incomplete. Christianity did not have strong enough effect to hold the Vikings from attacking and looting in England and France. 51. A saga is a prose narrative usually written in Iceland between 1120 and 1400, dealing with the families that first settled Iceland and their descendants, with the histories of the kings of Norway, and with the myths and legends of early Germanic gods and heroes. 52.
The Vikings ended up in the principality of Kiev because they were invited by the Slavs to aid them in their internal affairs. The Vikings became a part of the first East Slavic state. 53. The Kiev kept close ties to Western Europe because they needed the trade route. They did this by arranging a marriage between the Euroslav and the Byzantine, England, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Hungry.
54. The head of the Kievan government was the prince, who selected nobles, to help govern with him. The prince consulted the towns for advice, but he was not the keeper of justice. Most cases were settled in courts, which had no organized system. 55. The principality of Kiev declined because after Yaroslavs death the territory was divided between his male heirs, which resulted in frequent fights and civil wars.
These struggles left people unable to resist the menace of the steppe nomads and later on Kiev was cut off from the Black Sea, which devastated the commerce and culture.