Civil Rights Movement

.. he was released from jail he became an outspoken defender of Muslim doctrines. Malcolm believed that a common foe, the white man, hindered black, brown, red, and yellow peoples freedom worldwide throughout most of his life. He believed that evil was and inherited characteristic of white men. He spoke of whites as being devils and was later suspended from Elijah Muhammads Black Muslim movement.

Malcolm in one of his last interviews said that he had made mistakes during his life, and he was accountable for these mistakes. Malcolms biggest mistake was holding the racist view that all white men are evil, but he later altered this view. A man who takes responsibility for his actions, is noble: Malcolm X was noble because he stood in the face of the black Muslims, and said, I was wrong in holding that all white men are evil, and you are wrong also, if you hold this belief. Malcolm later formed his own organization called Afro American Unity. He believed that violence was the key and that by advertising nonviolence nothing would be accomplished.

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Malcolm believed that if blacks were going to be free then they would have to free themselves by using any means necessary. Malcolm also believed that freedom or, independence comes only by two ways; by ballots or by bullets. Malcolm felt that if black peoples could not use ballots to be free, like black people in the south or those in the north whose rights were hindered by gerrymandering, and then bullets were the next option. Malcolm continued to promote armed defense against white injustice, throughout his whole life. He was murdered in 1964 shortly after the group had just been built up. He was buried under the name Al Hajj Malik al-Shabazz, which he had received during his pilgrimage to Mecca.

. The assassination of Malcolm X in 1965 marked a turning point in the civil rights struggle. Non-violent demonstrators began to advocate black power and any means necessary as methods to securing African American liberation. Martin Luther King Jr. on the other had been totally different from Malcolm X. They both had the same goal, but they had a completely different way at going to gain it.

Martin Luther King Jr. preached nonviolence as being the key to equality. He was born in Atlanta on January 15, 1929. He made his first mark on the civil rights movement by mobilizing the Black community during a 382-day boycott on the cities bus lines. Kings faith in nonviolence was tested many times during the Montgomery bus boycott, but each time he just felt stronger and more committed to what it was that he had to do.

With these actions he made it possible that the U.S. Supreme Court declared that laws requiring bus segregation was unconstitutional. King also summoned together a number of Black leaders in 1957 to lay down the groundwork for an organization, which is now known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He was the president of this organization and worked hard to protest campaigns against discrimination and voting rights.2 King did so much to help the Civil rights movement be a success. Even though he was arrested many times his voice was still and always heard by many people. He was named the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, which was on of his greatest triumph.

He worked very hard to please everyone no matter where they were. Many people felt that King was taking a huge risk by bringing the campaign for peace in step with the goals of the civil rights movement, but he knew exactly what he was doing. Even though he could not prevent some of the violence that continued in the world he always felt that if he could stop some people from using violence his goal was being achieved. King was later killed on April 4 1968 while standing on the balcony of the black- owned Lorraine motel. His death struck a wave of violence in major cities.

The death of King left many people in the black community with a feeling of much grief and anger. Martin Luther King Jr. was the conscience of his generation. A Southerner, a black man, he gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to free all people from the bondage of separation and injustice, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream of what American could be. He helped us overcome our ignorance of one another. He spoke out against a war he felt was unjust, as he had spoken out against laws that were unfair.

He made our nation stronger because he made it better. Honored by kings, he continued to his last days to strive for a word where the promises of our founding fathers. His life informed us, his dreams sustain us yet. 3 Mohandas Gandhi Mohandis Gandhi left many works explaining his nonviolence theories. However, in his Hind Swarf or Indian Rule we learn a lot of him and his ways, especially the way he spreads his ideas. Gandhi is a writer that wants to get his point across and nothing matters but getting it across. That is why he writes very literal as well as with imagery.

He uses a lot of examples to try and paint a picture in your mind about what he is saying. Gandhi makes up situations which he thinks a person would act violently too and show us how he would handle the situation nonviolently. Martin Luther King Jr.and Mohandis Gandhi has shared the same successful method of nonviolence protest unlike Malcolm X who believed in violence only. These two leaders that shared the method of nonviolence through many nonviolence protest. They both achieved their goals without an ethnic war, which in the end resulted to them being able to reach many people as a result of their hard earned work. .

The Civil Rights Movement affected the United States in a few ways. One of those ways was by the means of affirmative action. Affirmative action states that companies must actively pursue the hiring of blacks, females, and other minorities. Companies are then put in the position to hire more blacks and women, and then quotas began to exist. Incompetent people get promoted and some argue that it is reverse discrimination. Affirmative action is actually reverse discrimination against white males.

Today, civil rights groups argue that affirmative action cures discrimination. Two more successes of the Civil Rights Movement were the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965. The Civil Rights Act stated that discrimination on the basis of race in all public places is illegal. After the Civil Rights Act was passed, more blacks were seen entering the work force. Prior to President Lyndon B.

Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act in 1965, blacks had to pass a literacy test, pay poll taxes, and fit in with the grandfather clause, just to vote. Very few blacks registered to vote in those days because they could not read, answer absurd questions, or pay the tax. However, after the passing of the act, more blacks were registering to vote. Blacks were elected to such public offices as mayors and state and congressional representatives. Voter eligibility was now based on age, residency, and citizenship. In conclusion the civil rights movement had many events that went on in order to help Blacks achieve some rights.

There were many leaders who helped contribute to the success of the civil rights movement. Many people believed that Martin Luther king Jrs death marked the end of the civil rights movement in views dealing with nonviolence and in some ways it did. Even though things may not have worked out exactly the way some people had hoped it too I feel that Blacks have come a long way and in many ways we are still working hard to achieve our goal to the fullest. Bibliography Ansbro, John C. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Making of a Mind. New York: Orbis Books 1982 Ashmore, Harry S.

Civil Rights and Wrongs. New York: Pantheon Books 1994 Blumberg, Rhoda Lois Civil Rights the 1960s Freedom Struggle. New York: Twayne Publishers 1991 Conti, Joseph G. and Stetson, Brad Challenging the Civil Rights Establishment. Connecticut: Praeger Publishers 1993 Ploski, Harry A. and Kaisher, Ernest Afro USA: A reference work on the black experience.

New York University: Bellwether Publishing Company, Inc 1971 Morris, Aldon M. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: A Division of Mcmillian, Inc 1984.